Key Ingredients / Additional Info
The Science Behind NutraBio PRE Extreme
A closer look at the 21 ingredients and doses used to make NutraBio PRE Extreme the most hardcore pre-workout on the market
RAPID GLYCOGEN PRE-LOAD SYSTEM (15,000 mg)
HIGHLY BRANCHED CYCLIC DEXTRIN (AS CLUSTER DEXTRIN) (15,000 MG)
- Cyclic Dextrin is a clinically studied carbohydrate that is rapidly absorbed and provides fuel (glycogen) to working muscles.
- Cluster Dextrin is highly soluble and promotes fast gastric emptying times; virtually eliminating any gastric distress often associated with less advanced carbohydrates.
- Cluster Dextrin maintains a slow release, offering the ideal interaction between carbohydrate breakdown and the normal release of free fatty acids. The result: superior carbohydrate absorption and superior endurance.
- In 2013 human clinical trials of Cluster Dextrin, 24 adult male athletes showed that during cycling exercise, the group administered 15 grams of Cluster Dextrin performed better than those who took the same amount of a maltodextrin.
- Unlike other formulations using Cluster Dextrin that have dextrose or maltodextrin hidden in the “other ingredients,” NutraBio uses only pure Cluster Dextrin
ATHLETIC ENDURANCE & PERFORMANCE COMPLEX (8500 mg)
- L-Citrulline is an amino acid that plays an important role in nitric oxide metabolism and regulation.
- It is converted to L-Arginine in the body to support L-Arginine and nitric oxide levels.
- Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) promotes vascular dilation which improves oxygen and blood circulation throughout the body.
- L-Citrulline is also expected to relieve muscle fatigue through ammonia elimination.
- A 2015 study conducted by Bailey et al. found subjects who supplemented with 6000mg L-Citrulline for 7 days were able to improve oxygen uptake and performance during high-intensity exercise.
BETA ALANINE (3200 mg)
- Beta-alanine (BA) is a version of the amino acid alanine which serves as the precursor to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in skeletal muscle. Supplementing with BA is a highly effective means of increasing muscle carnosine content. Increased muscle carnosine helps buffer the negative side effects of hydrogen ion accumulation in muscles as exercise intensity increases.
- Beta-Alanine supplementation has been linked to improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue at higher intensities in both trained and untrained individuals in events lasting 1-4 minutes.
- Increases in lean muscle mass and muscular endurance have also been noted with supplementation.
- A recent meta-analysis confirmed the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, showing a 2.85% increase in exercise performance compared to placebo when dosed at ~2/grams daily.
ATP POWER, STRENGTH, & RECOVERY COMPLEX (9000 mg)
L-LEUCINE (3500 mg)
- Leucine is one of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA). By itself it can stimulate muscle protein synthesis; the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery. This is why it is often referred to as the “main” amino acid.
- Supplementation with at least 2/grams daily leucine has been shown decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.
- Howatson et al. (2012) discovered that leucine (combined with isoleucine and valine) administered before muscle damaging resistance exercises reduced indices of muscle damage and accelerated recovery in resistance trained males.
- NutraBio’s leucine is derived from fermented vegetables sources as opposed to animal based sources.
BETAINE ANHYDROUS (2500 mg)
- Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaine’s two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.
- Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume.
- Betaine also plays a role in hepatic fat metabolism, promoting muscle protein synthesis, and has been suggested to increase nitric oxide levels.
- A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power 20%.
ELECTROLYTE & HYDRATION OPTIMIZER (2214 mg)
TAURINE (2000 mg)
- Taurine is one of the most important, useful, and safest amino acids. Taurine is best known for its beneficial effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Early clinical research also suggests that taurine, in combination with caffeine, can produce improvements in mental performance. When the body engages in extreme physical activity, it no longer will be able to produce the necessary amounts of taurine, therefore supplementation becomes necessary.
- Taurine is involved in the regulation of core body temperature and may help prevent heat stress and stroke.
- Taurine is also acts is an osmolyte; assisting the body in maintaining proper water balance.
- Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.
CALCIUM POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE CITRATE (AS CALCI-K) (525 mg) & SODIUM PHOSPHATE (189mg)
- Calcium, potassium, and phosphorus are vital electrolytes needed to maintain bodily water balance and facilitate motor neuron function.
- The combination of these electrolytes in CALCI-K are highly soluble and readily absorbed by the body.
- Electrolytes have been shown to prevent muscle cramps and are essential to normal muscular contractions.
- As we exercise electrolytes are lost through sweat and must be replaced in order to prevent decreases in performance
- Sims et al. (2007) discovered that pre-exercise ingestion of a high-sodium beverage increased plasma volume before exercise and involved less thermoregulatory and perceived strain during exercise and increased exercise capacity in warm conditions.
FOCUS, DRIVE, & STIMULATION COMPLEX (1954 mg)
L-TYROSINE (1500 mg)
- Tyrosine is an essential amino acid whose primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the hormones dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
- Tyrosine may improve both endurance and anaerobic performance via metabolic and/or neurotransmitter upregulation.
- Tyrosine also improves mental acuity, focus, and mood by increasing levels of catecholamines found in the bloodstream.
- A study done at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory reported that a dose of L-Tyrosine, when provided to sleep deprived subjects, ameliorated psychomotor performance declines associated with mental fatigue.
CAFFEINE (250 mg) and INFINERGY (100 mg DI-CAFFEINE MALATE) (350 mg total caffeine)
- Caffeine, like creatine, it one of the most studied and proven ergogenic (performance enhancing) aids. Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels. Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
- Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid. Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production). Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.
- According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.
- The ISSN position stand on caffeine concluded:
- Caffeine can act to enhance alertness and vigilance during times of exhaustive exercise that requires sustained focus.
- Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for sustained maximal endurance activity, and has also been shown to be very effective for enhancing time trial performance.
- Caffeine can enhance, not inhibit, glycogen resynthesis during the recovery phase of exercise.
- Caffeine is beneficial for high-intensity exercise of prolonged duration
THEAPURE (L-THEANINE) (300 mg)
- L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perception stress.
- Research suggests that L-Theanine’s biggest supplemental role may be in taking the “edge” off of other stimulants.
- A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting cognition and attention.
- Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.
YOHIMBINE HCL (4 mg)
- Yohimbine HCL is an alkaloid that is considered a general stimulant that works by increasing adrenaline levels in the body.
- In some cases Yohimbine HCL increases blood vessel dilation which may enhance energy levels during workouts.
- Increases in cognitive performance have also been noted in those supplementing with Yohimbine HCL.
- Yohimbine HCL also may act as a fat burning compound by acting upon the adrenergic receptor system of fat cells, which regulate thermogenesis.
- A study conducted by Ostojic (2006) found elite male soccer players who supplemented with Yohimbine HCL for 21 days reduced average body fat levels from 9.3% to 7.1%
HUPERZINE A (100 mcg)
- Huperizine A is a selective inhibitor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which means it prevents the breakdown and increases the amount of acetylcholine; an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in cognition and muscular contractions.
- Multiple studies have shown that supplementation with Huperzine-A can enhance focus, memory and mood.
- A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with Huperzine A for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memort compared to a placebo group.
NITRIC OXIDE PERFORMANCE MATRIX (1750 mg)
AGMATINE SULFATE (1000 mg)
- Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of Arginine through decarboxylation. It produces other byproducts that are involved in cell growth, structural and metabolic support to the nervous system.
- Decarboxylated arginine cannot be broken down in the liver and consequently increases blood flow to working muscles through vasodilation.
- Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
- PRE uses a vegan source of agmatine that us derived from fermented plants.
INOSITOL ARGININE SILICATE (AS NITROSIGINE) (750 mg)
- Nitrosigine is a bonded complex of arginine and silicon that helps enhance nitric oxide levels to a greater degree compared to arginine alone.
- Increased nitric oxide levels promote the relaxation of smooth muscle in blood vessels, increasing blood flow to working muscles.
- In pre-clinical studies nitrosigine was found to be more biologically active than arginine chloride. The research also showed enhanced blood flow during and after exercise which may help with muscle growth and recovery.
NUTRIENT ABSORPTION ENHANCER (5 mg)
PIPER NIGRUM EXTRACT (AS BIOPERINE)
- BioPerine is a patented extract of the fruit of black pepper that contains standardized amounts of the active ingredient piperine.
- Numerous clinical studies suggest that when a 5 mg dose of BioPerine is taken with other supplements, it increases the absorption of those supplements by 30 to 2,000 percent.
- In sum BioPerine significantly enhances the bioavailability of various supplement nutrients through increased absorption
- At NutraBio, we like to call this “bioavailability insurance” for our highly technical formulations that rely on extremely pure and refined ingredients.